Friday, August 2, 2019
Community Assessment Essay
Lake County, Illinois is located on the shore of Lake Michigan and borders the state of Wisconsin, sitting in the northeast corner of the state of Illinois. Established March 1, 1839, Lake County consists of fifty-three villages, cities and townships. I have lived in Vernon Hills, one of the villages located in Lake County since 2005. Lake County is considered part of the Chicago, Illinois metropolitan area also referred to as the Chicagoland Area. Lake County is located north of and adjacent to Cook County, Illinois. According to the 2000 census, Lake County was the 31st richest county by per capita income. (Wikipedia, 2013) There are many affluent communities that are located in Lake County, including Lake Forrest, Lake Bluff and Highland Park which are all on the shore of Lake Michigan and referred to as the North Shore. According to 2012 census data, the population of Lake County was 703,462, which is an increase of 9. 2% compared to the 2000 census data. (Wikipedia, 2013) Headquartered in Lake County are many major medical device and pharmaceutical manufacturers such as Abbot Healthcare, Baxter Healthcare, Medline Industries, Astellas Pharmaceuticals and Takeda Pharmaceuticals which attributes to the growth and diversity of this county. Additionally, the Naval Station Great Lakes which is the NavyÃ¢â¬â¢s only training center for recruits is located in Lake County in the town of North Chicago. Additional major revenue sources for Lake County are the Six Flags Great America amusement park which is open approximately eight months per year and the many indoor water parks that are open year round. While a significant portion of the population that reside in Lake County also work in Lake County, a sizeable percent of Lake CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s population commute to Chicago for work. Conversely, due to the businesses located in Lake County, there are many people who reside in Cook County who commutes for work in Lake County. This is very evident based upon the number of people both riding trains and driving daily from Lake County to Cook County for work and vice versa. Population/Economic Assessment The demographics of Lake County show a significant increase in population and change from 2000 to 2010. While the Caucasian (White) population is only up by 2% it is still the predominate population of Lake County. The Asian and Latino populations have both increased 77% and 51% respectively. The Latino population accounts for 20. 5% of Lake CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s population. (Quick Facts, 2013) The African American population has increased 10% from 2000 to 2010. Lake County demographics are reflective of the changes occurring nationwide as diversity continues to change the landscape of American. (LakeCounty. gov, 2013) There is an equivalent proportion of male to female living in Lake County with 50. 1% of the population being female and 49. 9% of the population being male. County Demographic Profile form the US Census Bureau Decennial Census and American Community Survey 1990 Census 2000 Census 2010 Census Change 2000 to 2010 Percent Change 2000 to 2010 Total Population 516,418 644,599 703,462 58,863 9% White Population* 450,666 516,189 528,204 12,015 2% African American Population* 34,771 44,741 49,033 4,292 10% Asian Population* 12,363 25,103 44,358 19,255 77% Latino Population (any race) 38,570 92,716 139,987 47,271 51% Median Age 31. 6 33. 8 36. 7 2. 9 9% Number of Households 173,966 216,297 241,712 25,415 12% Average Household Size 2. 88 2. 85 2. 82 -0. 03 -1% Median Household Income (not adjusted to current dollars) $46,047 $66,973 $78,423^ NA NA Number of Housing Units 183,283 226,012 260,310 34,298 15% Source: US Census Bureau Ã¢â¬â 1990, 2000 and 2010 Decennial Census *Reporting only one race ^2005-2009 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates The median household income in Lake County is $78,423 according to the 2010 census data which is $27,406 higher than the median household income nationally which fell slightly to $51,017 per year in 2012. (Hargreaves, 2013) The percent of persons in Lake County who are below the poverty level from 2007 to 2011 was 8. 2%, compared to 13. 1% for the state of Illinois and more than 16% nationwide. (Hargreaves, 2013) In July 2013, the unemployment rate was 8. 5% as compared to 7. 4% nationally. This is concerning due to a personal observation of the number of large businesses which are hiring in Lake County, as compared to the increase in the number of small businesses who are closing in the county. Of note, the number of housing units is up 15% from 2000 to 2010 which correlates to the increase in census. The last count of the homeless population in Lake County that is found is from 2010 where 474 persons were found to meet the federal definition of homeless on January 28, 2010. (Castellanos, 2010) There are 42,012 individuals who receive food stamps which equates to 6% of the population receiving federal food assistance. (Frac. org, 2013). There are 11,942 recipients in Lake County receiving some form of public assistance. Of that 1,324 are considered aged, 6,053 are blind and disabled, 4,039 are age 18 to 64 and 1,850 are age 65 or older. $3,943 is the average amount of payments in thousands of dollars per recipient. (SSA, 2013). Cultural Assessment The median age of Lake County residents in 2010 is 37. 6 years of age. Below is a listing of population by age, as well as may other cultural statistics according to the 2000 U. S. Census Bureau. (FactFinder2, 2013) Subject Lake County, Illinois Number Percent SCHOOL ENROLLMENT Population 3 years and over enrolled in school 185,035 100. 0 Nursery school, preschool 16,850 9. 1 Kindergarten 11,513 6. 2 Elementary school (grades 1-8) 86,422 46. 7 High school (grades 9-12) 37,591 20. 3 College or graduate school 32,659 17. 7 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Population 25 years and over 398,265 100. 0 Less than 9th grade 23,819 6. 0 9th to 12th grade, no diploma 29,640 7. 4 High school graduate (includes equivalency) 85,056 21. 4 Some college, no degree 84,499 21. 2 Associate degree 21,525 5. 4 BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree 95,750 24. 0 Graduate or professional degree 57,976 14. 6 Percent high school graduate or higher 86. 6 (X) Percent bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree or higher 38. 6 (X) MARITAL STATUS Population 15 years and over 483,528 100. 0 Never married 118,850 24. 6 Now married, except separated 300,474 62. 1 Separated 5,947 1. 2 Widowed 20,956 4. 3 Female 17,001 3. 5 Divorced 37,301 7. 7 Female 22,290 4. 6 GRANDPARENTS AS CAREGIVERS Grandparent living in household with one or more own grandchildren under 18 years 10,127 100. 0 Grandparent responsible for grandchildren 3,292 32. 5 VETERAN STATUS Civilian population 18 years and over 442,570 100. 0 Civilian veterans 48,101 10. 9 DISABILITY STATUS OF THE CIVILIAN NONINSTITUTIONALIZED POPULATION Population 5 to 20 years 156,934 100. 0 With a disability 10,484 6. 7 Population 21 to 64 years 364,479 100. 0 With a disability 48,296 13. 3 Percent employed 65. 6 (X) No disability 316,183 86. 7 Percent employed 78. 9 (X) Population 65 years and over 51,714 100. 0 With a disability 17,878 34. 6 RESIDENCE IN 1995 Population 5 years and over 591,519 100. 0 Same house in 1995 308,970 52. 2 Different house in the U. S. in 1995 260,127 44. 0 Same county 130,584 22. 1 Different county 129,543 21. 9 Same state 70,156 11. 9 Different state 59,387 10. 0 Elsewhere in 1995 22,422 3. 8 NATIVITY AND PLACE OF BIRTH Total population 644,356 100. 0 Native 548,820 85. 2 Born in United States 541,781 84. 1 State of residence 379,444 58. 9 Different state 162,337 25. 2 Born outside United States 7,039 1. 1 Foreign born 95,536 14. 8 Entered 1990 to March 2000 45,092 7. 0 Naturalized citizen 35,300 5. 5 Not a citizen 60,236 9. 3 REGION OF BIRTH OF FOREIGN BORN Total (excluding born at sea) 95,536 100. 0 Europe 21,674 22. 7 Asia 19,849 20. 8 Africa 902 0. 9 Oceania 266 0. 3 Latin America 51,064 53. 5 Northern America 1,781 1. 9 LANGUAGE SPOKEN AT HOME Population 5 years and over 591,519 100. 0 English only 464,971 78. 6 Language other than English 126,548 21. 4 Speak English less than Ã¢â¬Ëvery well 58,966 10. 0 Spanish 76,049 12. 9 Speak English less than Ã¢â¬Å"very wellÃ¢â¬ 42,631 7. 2 Other Indo-European languages 32,238 5. 5 Speak English less than Ã¢â¬Å"very wellÃ¢â¬ 9,467 1. 6 Asian and Pacific Island languages 15,710 2. 7 Speak English less than Ã¢â¬Å"very wellÃ¢â¬ 6,282 1. 1 ANCESTRY (single or multiple) Total population 644,356 100. 0 Total ancestries reported 747,907 116. 1 Arab 1,635 0. 3 Czech 7,840 1. 2 Danish 5,348 0. 8 Dutch 8,724 1. 4 English 47,469 7. 4 French (except Basque) 15,261 2. 4 French Canadian 3,746 0. 6 German 138,880 21. 6 Greek 6,267 1. 0 Hungarian 4,561 0. 7 Irish 82,286 12. 8 Italian 45,060 7. 0 Lithuanian 4,725 0. 7 Norwegian 14,612 2. 3 Polish 57,249 8. 9 Portuguese 477 0. 1 Russian 21,109 3. 3 Scotch-Irish 6,688 1. 0 Scottish 10,116 1. 6 Slovak 2,235 0. 3 Subsaharan African 2,356 0. 4 Swedish 21,202 3. 3 Swiss 2,154 0. 3 Ukrainian 4,026 0. 6 United States or American 27,800 4. 3 Welsh 2,809 0. 4 West Indian (excluding Hispanic groups) 1,884 0. 3 Other ancestries 201,388 31. 3 Source: U. S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 Summary File 3, Matrices P18, P19, P21, P22, P24, P36, P37, P39, P42, PCT8, PCT16, PCT17, and PCT19 The percentage of Lake County that is affiliated with a religious congregation is 59. 18%. (City-data, 2013) There are 288 congregations in the county with 66% adhering to the Catholic Church, 7% to the Jewish faith and 27% to other denominations including both protestant and non-protestant religions. Parks and recreation. Parks and recreation in Lake County are abundant. The total area of the county is1,368. 48 square miles of which 443. 67 square miles or 32. 42% is land and 924. 81 square miles 67. 58% is water. (Wikipedia, 2013). There are a total of five (5) parks and ninety-one (91) lakes in addition to Lake Michigan which is border to a very large part of the county. There are several forest preserves and natural areas located within Lake County, including a long string that runs from north to south and healthincludes Half Day Woods, Old School Forest Preserve, Independence Grove and Van Patten Woods. These all form the Des Plaines River Greenway, which contains the Des Plaines River Trail where many in the community walk, run or bike. There are the traditional nature preserves, such as the Ryerson Conservation Area. Additionally, there are many golf courses and historic homes, such as the Adlai Stevenson historic home. Outdoor and indoor sports and activities are plentiful and do not forget Six Flags Great America and the indoor water parks. Health of Lake County. Lake County has created a Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) which included a health assessment of the community. The MAPP is a strategic planning approach to community health improvement developed through the cooperative effort of the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), the Public Health Practice Program Office of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, local health officials, community representatives and academicians. (MAPP, 2013). The strategic effort consists of the following components: Helping the community to take responsibility for its own health through a grass roots approach. Using the 10 Essential Public Health Services to define public health activities to create a strategic plan. Conducting four comprehensive assessments to identify what needs to be included in the plan and what needs to be worked on. The local public health systems are included in development of the plan. Ensuring that diverse voices and perspectives are including in constructing the plan. Ensuring a shared vision. Data is used to make decisions. Partnerships and collaborative are made. Successes are always celebrated. The community health assessment report created by MAPP has twelve sections as listed below. 1. Some General Attributes of Lake CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s Population and their Health-Related Characteristics 2. An Evaluation of Progress Toward the Community Health Improvement Goals from the 2006 Illinois Project for Local Assessment of Needs (IPLAN) 3. Births and Birth Outcomes / Maternal, Fetal, and Infant Health 4. Youth Health Behaviors 5. Environmental Health 6. Built Environment 7. Community Safety 8. Behavioral Health 9. Infectious Diseases 10. Mortality Rates and Stratified Incidence Rates 11. Age-Stratified Hospital/ER and Other Local Data 12. Chronic Conditions, Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions, and Hospital Usage Data In this report that total life expectancy for Lake CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s population is 79. 3 years. For males it is 77. 5 years and for females it is 81 years. Additionally, Caucasians and African Americans are listed with life expectancies of 80. 4 years and 79. 8 years respectively. No other population sectors are listed separately. All of these statistics are higher than national statistics from 2008 which was overall 78. 12. Approximately 11% of residents in Lake County do not have health insurance. It is estimated that approximately 65% of Lake County residents are actively engaged in improving their health status based upon the accessibility and health care effort and education within the community. Overall, Lake County is very actively engaged in improving the health of the community. The community has the normal health concerns as most communities in the United States. The top five causes of death in Lake County from 2003 to 2007 were all cancers, followed by heart disease, dementia, cerebrovascular disease and chronic lower respiratory disease. (Health Department, 2013). There are ample number of community health resources with eighteen (18) community health departments, seven (7) hospitals and over a hundred of health clinics and offices located within easy access throughout the county. Mental health issues and substance abuse. There are two major growing concerns within Lake County according to the MAPP health assessment. Mental health issues and substance abuse are rising expeditiously and are attributed to stress and economic concerns that are facing many Americans. The existing behavioral health and substance abuse programs available to meet these rising needs are not adequate to handle the demand. This lack of services is based upon fiscal challenges, including the economic downturn, problems with Medicaid reimbursement at the state level, and political feuds at the state government level. (MAPP, 2013). Also according to the report, there has never been adequate supply of services and over the past four years, there have been state funding cuts that have either significantly limited or delayed access to care. Domestic violence and homelessness are both on the rise in the community and both are a result of the mental health and substance abuse growth. It is believed that all of these issues are rising in Lake County because there is lack of funding for prevention and treatment programs. Further, what is lacking is awareness in general by the public and policy makers of the prevalence and growth patterns in these conditions and the extent of the impact they have on families and the community. There is not a short term or long term plan that has been developed to address these issues. The lack of knowledge may be partly due to the demographicsÃ¢â¬â¢ of this community with its history of affluence and growth where financial issues have not been as concerning in the past and/or because the private sector could afford private treatment and keeping such issues behind closed doors and thus politicians have historically not been made to care about these issues. Neighborhood/Community Safety The Lake County Health Department and Community Health Center among all of the data already expressed regarding the health of Lake County, monitors the air quality in Lake County. They monitor both indoor and outdoor air quality and have an on-line alert system to Lake County residents. They monitor ozone and ozone action days, they offer radon testing kits, they provide information about the Clean Air Act, they investigate inquiries about leaf and, or open burning, they help students with service projects related to the environment and offer advice regarding mold or mildew, asthma and flood or sewer cleanups. (LakeCounty. gov, 2013). The air quality index for Lake County is reported as good by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Every year Lake County produces a water quality report. It is found on the lakecounty. gov web site and easily accessible by any one as is all vital information needed statistic for the county. Lake County is a strong supporter of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of the support of this act, they are required to publish an annual Consumer Confidence Report (CCR) describing the sources, treatment and chemical analysis of each water distribution system. (LakeCounty. gov, 2013). In Lake County, Lake Michigan supplies most of the water source for Lake County. More than 750 million gallon of water is supplied to the village where I live in Lake County. Lake Michigan water is disinfected by using the ozone, which has been proven to be highly effective in removing contaminants and in deactivating disease-causing pathogens. After the water is treated, it passes through filters of granular activated carbon which removes any remaining contaminants and particles from the water. This also takes out bad tastes and odors. (LakeCounty. gov, 2013). To prevent the spread of disease from wildlife, the Lake County government monitors animal care and the control of the animal care populations with the goal of preventing the spread of rabies through their Animal Care and Control division. They enforce county ordinances and state laws related to any animal complaints. They investigate nuisance complaints, complaints of animal cruelty or neglect, as well as reports of stray, roaming, injured, dangerous, vicious or biting animals. They also provide spay and neuter assistance to low-income families in Lake County. Because of all of the lakes in Lake County there is a high potential for water related injuries. These potentials include injuries from boating, swimming and drowning. In addition, water quality is at risk because of all of the development along the water fronts, inappropriate sewage disposal, storm water runoff that becomes polluted. The lakes are monitored by Lake CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s Lakes Management Unit which is part of the Health Department. The Lakes Management Unit monitors the quality of the countyÃ¢â¬â¢s surface water in order to: Ã¢â¬â Maintain or improve water quality and alleviate nuisance conditions Ã¢â¬â Promote healthy and safe lake conditions Ã¢â¬â Protect and improve ecological diversity (LakeCounty. gov, 2013). Lake County also has a food safety division to protect its food supply. Community services division. The Community Services Division which is also part of Lake County government is responsible for educating the public in ways individuals can help prevent crime and cooperate with law enforcement. They make programs available to help reduce criminal victimization and improve the quality of life of residents in Lake County. These programs include the following: 1. Community Policing Contact Program 2. Neighborhood Watch Program 3. Home Security Program 4. Home Security Survey 5. Traveling Alone Program 6. Safety on Call Program 7. McGruff the Crime Dog 8. Bicycle Safety Program 9. Career Shadow Day 10. Personal Safety and Security Program 11. Illinois SherriffÃ¢â¬â¢s Association Scholarship Program 12. Child Fingerprinting Program 13. R. U. O. K Program 14. DUI Awareness Program 15. Volunteer Senior Advocates Program The Crime Prevention Division within the SherriffÃ¢â¬â¢s Department is responsible for handling many of the community services and provides public safety education and information along with the Community Services Division. The Lake County MAPP also addresses community safety and prescribes following the World Health Organizations (WHO) Collaborating Center on Community SafetyÃ¢â¬â¢s six indicators for safe communities. 1. Ã¢â¬Å"An infrastructure based on partnerships and collaborations, governed by a cross-sectoral group that is responsible for safety promotion in their community; 2. Long-term, sustainable programs covering both genders and all ages, environments, and situations; 3. Programs that target high-risk groups and environments, and programs that promotes safety for vulnerable groups; 4. Programs that document the frequency and causes of injuries; 5. Evaluation measures to assess their programs, processes, and effects for change; 6. Ongoing participation in national and international Safe Communities NetworksÃ¢â¬ Each community within Lake County has their own police and fire departments. No deficiencies in service or in quality are found. In 2008 crime rate was 2132 and in 2009 it was 2160. While crimes among juveniles are declining, the crime rates for adults are increasing. The most frequent crime is theft, followed by burglary, aggravated assault/battery and motor vehicle theft. The rate of aggravated assault/battery has increased by 18. 3% and is primarily due to increased in domestic violence. There are 52,756 total law enforcement employees in Lake County dedicated to enforcing the law preventing crime but there appears to be a need for prevention programs to address the increase in domestic violence. Disaster Assessment and Planning Lake CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s Emergency Management Agency (LCEMA) requests that they be called for all types of emergencies including train derailments to hazardous materials spills. The LCEMA has a well-trained HAZMAT team as well as other specialized training that can deal with natural disasters and even biochemical events. LCEMA coordinates the primary response for everything non-medical. Lake County is located in an area where there can be extreme weather related events from tornadoÃ¢â¬â¢s to flooding to extreme cold weather and snow events. LCEMA will establish alerts and provide educational information when Lake County experiences extreme weather and during extreme weather seasons. They also coordinate with shelter sites mass evacuations if needed. Should the type of disaster require a specific expertise, LCEMA will call in appropriate county organizations as needed. For example, in the case of a medical emergency, such as a bio-weapon attack or a pandemic outbreak, Lake CountyÃ¢â¬â¢s Health DepartmentÃ¢â¬â¢s Emergency Management Agency (LCHDEMA) would take the primary role is responding to this type of event. The most resent event such as this was in 2009 when the H1N1 flu pandemic hit and LCHDEMA set up fifteen (15) mass vaccination clinics and vaccinated over 27,000 residents. LCEMA prescribes to the theory that disaster preparedness starts with the individuals within the community. They see their role as education, coordination and alert notification. Because they believe that is true disasters, there will not be enough available employed first responders to address the needs of the community, they have organized community they have organized Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT) which are made up of members of the community with specific talents and training who have committed to be available during an emergency. LCEMA functions are summarized in five (5) categories: Prevention Preparedness Response Recovery Mitigation Lake County has an all-natural disaster mitigation plan that is found on the Lake County government website. Communities that adopt the plan are eligible for pre- and post-disaster funding from three (3) FEMA mitigation grant programs. The committee responsible for this plan meets annually to review and update the plan to comply with FEMAÃ¢â¬â¢s required five (5) year plan process. The state of Illinois has developed a state-wide emergency preparedness plan that includes Lake County titled the Illinois Emergency Operations Plan (IEOP). While the local government is charged with dealing with emergencies and disasters, the state plan is there to take over when the local plan is not sufficient to meet the needs of the local community(s). A specific emergency operations plan for Lake County was not found. There is a link on their home page that when accessed goes to FEMAÃ¢â¬â¢s Comprehensive Preparedness Guide 101. Also located on the link is a plan analysis tool which is like a checklist to evaluate a plan, as well as many other links to local, state, federal and national emergency and disaster management resources. Also, there are links to several volunteer agencies on the website that can assist in the event of a disaster or emergency. Alert Lake County is another resource that provides information to residents of Lake County to prepare for disasters. If residents follow them on Twitter, they provide minute by minute information regarding impending or immediate disasters. On their website there are checklists, risk assessments, emergency plans and contacts for medical and other emergency resources that are very beneficial when disaster strikes. LCEMA refers residents of Lake County to Alert Lake County to become prepared for emergencies and disasters. On the Lake County Emergency Management Agency website are located the following five (5) videos intended to prepare and educate residents: Lake County Flooding Response Tips To Get Your Vehicle Ready For Winter Weather Conditions Stormy Weather Safety Tips Lake County Blizzard Response Cold Weather Preps When residents of Lake County were questioned about emergency and disaster management, I did not find anyone who was aware of the specific provisions that Lake County Emergency Management Agency provides to this community. Most assumed they existed, but no one had visited the website or accessed any information on this topic. I could not find anyone who knew about Alert Lake County and their services. I checked with my daughter who went to high school in Lake County and she vaguely remembers some information being distributed in school regarding disaster preparedness, but only as it elated to what they were to do in the event of an emergency while they were at school. The apparent lack of concern among Lake County residents who were questioned may be due to the long history of Lake County and the Chicagoland area for that matter providing alerts and information in a very timely manner and adequately addressing all emergencies and disasters that have historically happened in recent history. There appears to be a lot of confidence in the systems and processes in place. In fact, many older residents will refer to an event that happened around 1979 when a great blizzard occurred in Chicago and then mayor, Michael Bilandic was accused of not removing the snow in a timely and appropriate manner and therefore was not re-elected to a new term. Since that event, all of the government agencies in the Chicagoland area go above and beyond to respond to all impending or immediate emergencies in an appropriate manner. Genogram of Lake County How to gnifican Interpretation of Genogram The Genogram presents a summary of a thorough assessment of the Lake County, Illinois community and has been very enlightening and provides a copious amount of information. Getting to know the community better has shown light on needs for this community that should be addressed. This is analogous to performing a thorough assessment on a patient. The health indicators in this Genogram points to a need to address substance abuse and mental health issues in Lake County with both conditions on the rise resulting in an increase in crime statistics for the community, specifically violent behavior and domestic abuse. While that are ample hospitals health care facilities to treat the population, there is a shortage of prevention and treatment resources to address both substance abuse and mental illness. Further assessment of the disaster preparedness plan needs to occur to assure that having only a plan for natural disasters while relying on other state and volunteer resources are sufficient to address future needs of the community. Community diagnosis. The community diagnosis is that of an affluent community with excellent access to hospitals, clinics healthcare facilities but with a shortage of access to mental health and substance abuse prevention and care. The community assessment performed by MAPP suggests that this is due to a lack of knowledge by politicians that the problem exists and therefore a lack of funding to provide such services. Further the diagnosis shows that this lack of prevention programs and treatment for these health issues has resulted in an increase in crime, domestic violence and homelessness. This diagnosis supports the need for additional funding to provide the necessary prevention and treatment programs.